丰子恺

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丰子恺 | Fong Tse Ka (1898-1975)

fengzhikai55丰子恺, FONG TSE KA (1898-1975)原名丰润,中国现代画家、散文家、美术教育家、音乐教育家、漫画家、书法家和翻译家。丰子恺者,本名丰润,字子恺,浙江崇德石门湾人也。光绪二十四年1898生,有六姊,他的母亲将他生下来后,由于父母亲十分喜爱他,取小名“慈玉”。他在家乡念小学时,有一次,乡下要搞什么选举。小学老师说,乡下人文化低,笔画多的字不好写,为日后考虑,名字应尽量用笔画少的字,因此,“润”字改为“仁”字,老师说,浙江读音“仁”与“润”差不多,“仁”在意义上与“慈玉”的“慈”接近,因此,他的名字就叫“丰仁”了。他就以这个名字进入杭州浙江第一师范学校。师从李叔同学音乐、绘画,从夏丏尊学国文。毕业,与刘质平、吴梦非、刘海粟、姜丹书创中华美育会,办《美育》杂志。又与质平等创办上海艺术专科学校,教西洋美术。

在第一师范时,他因善于写文章,国文常得第一名,很受国文老师单不庵的器重。单不庵觉得在“丰仁”这个单名之外应该有一个双名,而“慈玉”是小名,应另取一个名字。因此单不庵就给他取了“子顗”。后改为“子恺”(“恺”与“顗”同,均为安乐意)。从此,他就取名叫“丰子恺”了。后来写文、作画均用此名。

丰子恺在早期作画时,曾用TK署名。那是“子恺”二字的英文拼写缩写。当时的子读作“TSU”。

丰子恺自幼爱好美术,1914年入浙江省立第一师范学校,从李叔同学习绘画和音乐。另一位对他有较大影响的老师则是夏丏尊,他称李叔同对他的教育方式为“爸爸般的教育”,而夏丏尊老师的则为“妈妈般的教育”,这两位老师,尤其是李叔同,对他的一生影响甚大。1918年秋,李叔同在杭州虎跑寺出家,后丰子恺曾作文《怀念李叔同先生》以纪念恩师。1917年与同学组织桐荫画会。1919年师范学校毕业后,与同学数人在上海创办上海专科师范学校,并任图画教师。1921年东渡日本短期考察,学习绘画、音乐和外语。1922年回国到浙江上虞春晖中学教授图画和音乐,与朱自清、朱光潜等人结为好友。回国后从事美术、音乐教学,曾任上海开明书店编辑、上海大学、复旦大学、浙江大学美术教授。同时进行绘画、文学创作和文学、艺术方面的编译工作。1924年,与友人创办立达学院。抗战期间,辗转于西南各地,在一些大专院校执教。文艺刊物《我们的七月》4月号首次发表了他的画作《人散后,一钩新月天如水》。

1925年成立立达学会,参加者有茅盾、陈望道、叶圣陶、郑振铎、胡愈之等人。1926年,任教职于上海艺术大学。1929年被开明书店聘为编辑。1931年,他的第一本散文集《缘缘堂随笔》由开明书店出版。七七事变后,率全家逃难。1937年编成《漫画日本侵华史》出版。

1939年任浙江大学讲师、副教授。1942年任重庆国立艺专教授兼教务主任fengzikai66。1943年结束教学生涯,专门从事绘画和写作。陆续译著出版《音乐的常识》《音乐入门》《近世十大音乐家》《孩子们的音乐》等面向中小学生和普通音乐爱好者的通俗读物,为现代音乐知识的普及作了许多有益的工作。1946年返上海。出版画册《子恺漫画选》。1952年后历任上海文史馆馆员、中国美术家协会上海分会副主席、中国美术家协会常务理事、上海市对外文化协会副会长、上海市文联副主席、全国政协委员、上海中国画院院长、中国美术家协会上海分会主席,上海文学艺术界联合会副主席等。工绘画、书法,亦擅散文创作及文学翻译。

丰子恺,是中国现代受人敬仰的漫画家,散文家。他的绘画,文章在几十年沧桑风雨中保持一贯的风格:雍容恬静,其漫画更是脍炙人口。丰先生作品流传极广,失散也很多,就是结集出版的五十余种画册也大多绝迹于市场,给读者带来极大遗憾。在丰子恺先生的作品中,漫画恐怕是最为著名的了。往往是寥寥几笔,就勾画出一个意境,比如《人散后,一钩新月天如水》,几个茶杯,一卷帘笼,便是十分心情。丰先生的许多漫画,都是以儿童作为题材的,例如《阿宝赤膊》《你给我削瓜,我给你打扇》《会议》和《我的儿子》。读丰先生的儿童漫画,让我们这些所谓的成人都觉得惭愧。什么时候,我们这个世界,能少一些欺诈,多一些执着,多一些自然,多一些淡泊。

早在二十年代他就出版了《艺术概论》《音乐入门》《西洋名画巡礼》《丰子恺文集》《丰子恺散文集》等著作。他一生出版的著作达一百八十多部。

丰子恺的散文,在中国新文学史上也有较大的影响。主要作品有《缘缘堂随笔》《辞缘缘堂》《缘缘堂再笔》《告缘缘堂在天之灵》《随笔二十篇》《甘美的回忆》《艺术趣味》《率真集》《护生画集》(共9部)等。《白鹅》被编入初中一年级、四年级课文、《竹影》被编入初中一年级课文,《手指》被编为初中、小学六年级课程。这些作品除一部分艺术评论以外,大都是叙述他自己亲身经历的生活和日常接触的人事。

1898年11月9日,丰子恺出生在浙江省崇德县。由于是同辈中唯一的男孩子,他自小时候便被包围在脉脉的温情中,使他总是以温柔悲悯的心来看待事物,发散在他的笔下,就变成平易的文字和纯真的画风。

1914年,丰子恺考上了浙江省立第一师范学校。在这所学校里,丰子恺结识了对他的一生产生重大影响的两位老师——李叔同和夏丏尊。前者不仅给予他音乐和美术上的启蒙,也在为人处世上为他作了榜样;而后者所提倡使用生动活泼的白话文、如实地表现自己真实的感受的主张,则始终被他奉为圭臬,成为他以后散文创作中的最可亲可爱的特点。在这两位与他情谊深厚的老师那里,丰子恺找到了伴随他一生的三样东西——文学、绘画和音乐。

1918年,李叔同出家为僧,丰子恺自此与佛教结缘。

1919年学校毕业,组织发起“中华美育会”。创《美育》杂志。创办了中国教育史上第一所包括图画、音乐、手工艺各科的艺术师范学校——上海专科师范学校。

1926年,丰子恺参与发起和创办开明书店。

1927年11月,从弘一法师皈依佛门,法名婴行。

1933年,故乡新居“缘缘堂”落成,自此专心译著。

1943年,丰子恺来五通桥卖画,结识指点李道熙。

1975年9月15日逝世。

FONG TSE KA (1898-1975),Chinese modern painters and essayist, art educator, music educator, cartoonist, calligrapher and translator. FONG TSE KA was born in 1898 in zhejiang.He had six sisters. his parents very loved him named “ci yu”. FONG TSE KA was studied in Hangzhou first normal school. Li Shu Tong was his teacher of music and painting. After Fong Tse Ka guraduated, he established Chinese Aesthetic Education Association with Liu Hai Su, Liu Zhi Ping, Wu Meng Fei, Jiang Dan Shu and Magzine Mei Yu. And established Shanghai Academy of Arts with Liu Zhi Ping, teaching western painting.

At the early stage of Fong Tsu Ka’s painting, he used TK in his artworks. FONG TSE KA loved art from childhood. He went into Hangzhou first normal school in 1914. Li Shu Tong taught him music and painting. Xia Gai Zhun taught him sinology He called Li Shu Tong was father teacher and Xia Gai Zhun as mother teacher. He was influented by Li Shu Tong in his future. In the fall of 1918, Li Shutong became a monk in Hangzhou tiger run temple, and later Feng Zikai wrote a memorial to his teacher “miss Li Shutong”. Fong Tse Ka organized Tung Yin Painting Society in 1917. After graduated from normal school, established Shang Hai normal college with several students teaching painting. He studied painting, music, and foreign languange in Japan. And retured to Zhe Jiang Shang Yu Chun Hui middle school as a painting and music teacher. He made friends with Zhu Ziqing, Zhu Guangqian and others. He was worked as an editor at the Kai Ming bookstore,and worked as a art professor in Shanghai University, Fu Dan university and Zhejiang university.At the same time, he was painting,and did some literature and literary and artistic aspects of the series translation work. He established Li Da college with friend. During the war he was travelling all over the Southwest of China taught in some schools.

He establised Li Da sociaty, Mao dun, Ye sheng tao, Cheng wang dao, Zheng zheng duo, Hu yu zhi were the members of Li Da sociaty in 1925. Fong Tse Ka worked in Shanghai art university in 1926, and as an editor in Kai Ming book store. 1931 Kai Ming bookstore published his first essay collection. After July 7 incident 1937 he escaped with his family. He edited “cartoon of Japanese invasion of China” . He bacame professor of zhe jiang university in 1939, and professor of Chongqing National University. In 1943, he completed his teaching career, specializing in
painting and writing. Then published “Music knowledge” “Introduction to music””Children’s Music”books for children It has made a lot of work for the popularization of modern music knowledge.FONG TSE KA returned to Shanghai in 1946 published ” Tse Ka cartoon collection”. He worked for Shanghai literature and History Museum. Vice chairman of Shanghai branch of China Artists Association, Standing director of China Artists Association,Vice president of foreign culture association, Vice president of Shanghai literary and Art Federation, Member of the CPPCC National Committee, Dean of Shanghai Chinese Academy of painting, China Artists Association Shanghai branch Chairman,Vice president of the Shanghai Federation of literary and art. FONG TSE KA was a respected modern cartoonist and essayist in china. His paintings and articles to maintain a consistent grace style in the decades,the comic is well-known. Unfortunately there are a lot of Fong Tse Ka’s artworks lost, even published more than 50 album mostly disappeared in the market. cartoon is the most famous artworks of Fong Tse Ka. A few pens describe a scenario vividly.Most of Fong Tse Ka’s artwork are based on children.

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